Niagara Cutters S545 TiAlN-coated carbide square nose end mill has a 45-degree helix angle for fine-finish peripheral milling on difficult-to-machine materials, including stainless steel, titanium, and high-temperature alloys. The number of flutes varies; fewer flutes provide better chip-carrying capacity, while more flutes produce a finer finish. The 45-degree helix provides increased cutting action and chip evacuation compared to end mills with lower helix angles, as it moves excess material quickly up the spiral and away from the workpiece. This tool is designed for peripheral finishing. The TiAlN coating resists heat better than TiN and TiCN coatings, increasing tool life and performance. It also offers increased hardness compared to TiN and may reduce the need for lubricants based on the application. The carbide substrate is harder than high-speed or cobalt steel, making it more wear resistant at high speeds and providing longer tool life. The end mills square end creates sharp, unrounded cuts. Cutting edges have an eccentric primary relief feature that provides better support than a flat relief, reducing tooth breakage in difficult-to-machine materials. The center-cutting design has cutting teeth at the end of the tool, so it can be fed straight into the workpiece like a drill bit. Cutting diameter tolerance is +0.000″ to -0.002″. The round shank accommodates a range of tool holders. End mills are designed to remove material and create multi-dimensional shapes and profiles. They have cutting edges along the outside diameter and flutes that remove chips from the cutting area and allow cooling fluids to enter. If heat is not reduced effectively, the tools cutting edges will dull and additional material buildup can occur. The number of flutes can range from two to eight. Two-flute designs offer the most efficient chip removal, but more flutes provide a smoother finish. The shank is the end of the tool held in place by a tool holder or machine. Center-cutting end mills can create three-dimensional shapes and profiles, and make plunge cuts similar to a drill bit. Non-center-cutting end mills are for applications such as peripheral milling and finishing, but cannot make plunge cuts. Niagara Cutter has been designing and manufacturing precision cutting tools since 1954. Specializing in end mills, cutting mills, and saws, the company is based in New York and manufactures its tools at facilities in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.